Research Paper
Application of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in patients treated with upper airway stimulation therapy
World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2017,03(02) : 92-96. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-8811.2017.02.105

To determine the level of agreement among experienced operators of candidacy for upper airway stimulation (UAS) based on evaluation of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE).


The trial was designed as a single-blinded cross-sectional study. Four otolaryngologists with extensive DISE experience were given 63 video clips from the STAR trial video library. These videos were graded using the VOTE classification. Percentage agreement and Cohen’s κ (for inter-rater reliability) were calculated between pairs of reviewers, assessing palatal complete concentric collapse (CCC) and determining UAS eligibility. Subjects were also grouped based on collapse severity for each reviewer.


The reviewers had excellent (approximately 90%) agreement on findings at the level of the soft palate and tongue base. The inter-rater reliability for palatal CCC ranged from moderate to substantial. The agreement on determining the criteria for UAS implantation ranged from poor to moderate. All 4 upper airway structures as classified by the criteria of the VOTE were graded by all the reviewers as contributing to obstruction in a majority of subjects who were performed via application of DISE.


Application of DISE remains a subjective examination, even among those experienced operators, therefore more studies need to be performed for evaluation of improvement in inter-rater reliability after implantation of training videos.

Cite as: Ong Adrian A., Ayers Christopher M., Kezirian Eric J., et al.  Application of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in patients treated with upper airway stimulation therapy [J]. World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery,2017,03(02): 92-96. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-8811.2017.02.105
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As an implantable hypoglossal nerve stimulation system, upper airway stimulation (UAS), was recently developed to treat patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who do not tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The effectiveness of UAS was demonstrated in the STAR trial, a prospective, multi-institutional clinical trial.1 The subjects were screened with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in order to exclude those patients with complete concentric collapse (CCC) of the velopharynx (soft palate) because previous studies showed that the patients in this group did not have adequate reductions in their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) following implantation of UAS.2 Thus, identification of palatal CCC was an important exclusion criterion to determine the eligibility for UAS implantation.

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Drug-induced sleep endoscopy
Sleep-disordered Breathing
Inter-rater reliability
Upper airway stimulation
obstructive sleep apnea
Drug-induced sedation endoscopy